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Archive for September, 2015

Fullpaper PDF: makalah-kontrak-komunikasi-penggunaan-ngoko-bj

 

 

KONTRAK KOMUNIKASI:
POLA PENGGUNAAN TINGKAT TUTUR RENDAH (NGOKO) DALAM BAHASA JAWA (PENELITIAN PENGEMBANGAN TEORI)

Majid Wajdi
mawa2id@gmail.com
&
Paulus Subiyanto
Politeknik Negeri Bali, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Kuta Selatan, Badung, Bali

 

Abstract
The co-existence of low and high speech levels have become the explicit social markers of language of Java as one of stratified languages of Indonesia – as they are shown in the other four stratified languages of Indonesia – such as Balinese, Sundanese, Madurese and Sasak of Lombok. The pairs of low and high speech levels are language codes that can be used to show social relationship between or among its speakers during their daily life. Dyadic use of low and high codes of the language of Java are shown in three communication patterns of use of speech levels as a reflection of a social stratification of the society.

This paper discusses how speakers of the language of Java use low code (ngoko) speech level symmetrically. It is customary for its speakers to use low code, as an integral part of speech levels, in daily life of communication within their own speech community. In dyadic and symmetrical communication, two speakers of the language of Java will use low (ngoko) code to communicate to each other during their daily life. Regular use of low (ngoko) code symmetrically by two or more speakers can be seen as a marker of social equality and intimacy. Symmetrical use of low code (ngoko) reflects a meaning of social solidarity between or among the participants involved in a speech act in a speech event within a speech community. Regular use of low code (ngoko) indicates strongly that there is a reflection of politeness in language use and it is called friendliness politeness. Symmetrical use of low code (ngoko) indicates that it is not merely a communication strategy but – as it will become a research hypothesis – a kind of social contract or social agreement in broader sense or intimate communication contract for more specific one between or among the participants involved in a speech act in a speech event within a speech community.

Keyword: equality, closeness, solidarity, friendliness politeness, communication contract

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Observing Teaching and Learning Processes                                                   

(Ethnography of Speaking in the Classroom)

By Majid Wajdi

mawa2id@yahoo.com

Politeknik Negeri Bali

 

Abstract

This research was conducted to observe teaching processes of the second year students of a private senior high school. This study applies qualitative research method through observation procedures. The researcher himself is the key instrument of data collection, aided by audio and video recorder to record all the classroom activity during the English class.  This study aimed at describing, explaining and analyzing (1) the types of speech acts, (2) the general functions of speech acts, (3) the instructional functions of speech acts and the analyses of classroom speech acts produced in the teaching and learning of English as a foreign language.

Speaking a language is performing speech acts, acts such as making statements, giving commands, asking questions, making promises and so on. Speech acts are utterances that serve communication. We cannot get rid of using speech acts when speaking, explaining, giving information, showing our feelings and so on. To a great extent, the language or speech acts used by teachers and students in classrooms determines what is learned and how learning takes place. Some (language teaching experts) have argued strongly that students should have significant opportunities to integrate oral and written language in the classroom, because these experiences support and encourage the development of literacy.

The research showed that the numbers of constatives produced are 357 utterances: 257 utterances are produced by the teacher and 100 utterances belong to the students. Directives are 250 utterances: 243 utterances by the teacher and the rest of 7 utterances belong to the students. It is found the production of commissives of 34 utterances: 2 utterances produced by the teacher and 32 utterances by the students, followed by acknowledgements produced by the students of 4 utterances. Borrowing Edmonson-House’s term (see Trosborg, 1994: 120) i.e. didactives are found 64 utterances (correct, repeat, evaluate) produced by the teacher and the students. The general functions of constatives are assertives, informatives, descriptives, and responsives. Directives serve requestives, advisories, prohibitives and requestives functions. Commissives are functioned as promises and offer functions. Acknowledgments are used as greet and thank functions. Didactives serve disputives, descriptives, informatives and confirmatives functions. The instructional functions of constatives, directives, and didactives are control and organizational functions. Acknowledgments are used to express motivational or evaluative function.

The findings show that the English class, which involved two parties – the teacher and the students – differed with respect to the distribution of talking time. The teacher took up 79% of the talking time; while the distribution of talking time in the students’ favour was 21%. There are twenty participants studying English with the topic of speaking. It means that every student only took an opportunity to produce one utterance during 70 minutes of the learning time. It is obvious that most of the students often enjoy playing a predominantly inactive role, and feel ‘happy’ with the teacher’s initiative. It is shown that the students who practise listening comprehension, whereas the teacher practises oral proficiency.

Keywords: speech acts, teaching-learning, general functions of speech acts, instructional functions of speech acts.

 

Full paper PDF: observing teaching – teflin 2015: Observing Teaching and Learning Processes  (Ethnography of Speaking in the Classroom)                                   

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WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

Beautiful Life with Cancer

Discovering the Gift

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Pull up and listen...I've got a funny one for ya...

Sociolinguistics

Demi Pena dan Apa Yang Dituliskan: Berisi Aktivitas coretan dan Makalah

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

Beautiful Life with Cancer

Discovering the Gift

Storytime with John

Pull up and listen...I've got a funny one for ya...

Sociolinguistics

Demi Pena dan Apa Yang Dituliskan: Berisi Aktivitas coretan dan Makalah

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.