Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Linguistics’ Category

Communication Contract: The Use of Low Code (Ngoko) in Javanese

Majid Wajdi

mawa2id@gmail.com

&

Paulus Subiyanto

Politeknik Negeri Bali, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Kuta Selatan, Badung, Bali

Abstract

The co-existence of low and high speech levels have become the explicit social markers of the language of Java as one of the stratified languages of Indonesia – as they are shown in the other four stratified languages of Indonesia – such as Balinese, Sundanese, Madurese and Sasak of Lombok. The pairs of low and high speech levels are language codes that can be used to show a social relationship between or among its speakers during their daily life. Dyadic use of low and high codes of the language of Java are shown in three communication patterns of use of speech levels as a reflection of a social stratification of the society.

This paper discusses how speakers of the language of Java use low code (ngoko) speech level symmetrically. It is customary for its speakers to use a low code, as an integral part of speech levels, in the daily life of communication within their own speech community. In dyadic and symmetrical communication, two speakers of the language of Java will use low (ngoko) code to communicate to each other during their daily life. Regular use of low (ngoko) code symmetrically by two or more speakers can be seen as a marker of social equality and intimacy. Symmetrical use of low code (ngoko) reflects a meaning of social solidarity between or among the participants involved in a speech act in a speech event within a speech community. Regular use of low code (ngoko) indicates strongly that there is a reflection of politeness in language use and it is called friendliness politeness. Symmetrical use of low code (ngoko) indicates that it is not merely a communication strategy but – as it will become a research hypothesis – a kind of social contract or social agreement in broader sense or intimate communication contract for more specific one between or among the participants involved in a speech act in a speech event within a speech community.

Keyword: equality, closeness, solidarity, friendliness politeness, communication contract

Communication Contract: The Use of Low Code (Ngoko) in Javanese

Full paper request:

Read Full Post »

KONTRAK KOMUNIKASI: POLA PENGGUNAAN TINGKAT TUTUR RENDAH (NGOKO) BAHASA JAWA

Majid Wajdi

mawa2id@gmail.com

&

Paulus Subiyanto

Politeknik Negeri Bali, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Kuta Selatan, Badung, Bali

Abstract

           The co-existence of low and high speech levels have become the explicit social markers of the language of Java as one of the stratified languages of Indonesia – as they are shown in the other four stratified languages of Indonesia – such as Balinese, Sundanese, Madurese and Sasak of Lombok. The pairs of low and high speech levels are language codes that can be used to show a social relationship between or among its speakers during their daily life. Dyadic use of low and high codes of the language of Java are shown in three communication patterns of use of speech levels as a reflection of a social stratification of the society.

This paper discusses how speakers of the language of Java use low code (ngoko) speech level symmetrically. It is customary for its speakers to use a low code, as an integral part of speech levels, in the daily life of communication within their own speech community. In dyadic and symmetrical communication, two speakers of the language of Java will use low (ngoko) code to communicate to each other during their daily life. Regular use of low (ngoko) code symmetrically by two or more speakers can be seen as a marker of social equality and intimacy. Symmetrical use of low code (ngoko) reflects a meaning of social solidarity between or among the participants involved in a speech act in a speech event within a speech community. Regular use of low code (ngoko) indicates strongly that there is a reflection of politeness in language use and it is called friendliness politeness. Symmetrical use of low code (ngoko) indicates that it is not merely a communication strategy but – as it will become a research hypothesis – a kind of social contract or social agreement in broader sense or intimate communication contract for more specific one between or among the participants involved in a speech act in a speech event within a speech community.

Keyword: equality, closeness, solidarity, friendliness politeness, communication contract

Abstrak

Keberadaan sepasang tingkat tutur rendah dan tingkat tutur tinggi bahasa Jawa menjadi pemarkah sosial bahasa Jawa yang ekplisit sebagai salah satu bahasa yang memiliki stratifikasi tuturan – sebagaimana tercermin pada bahasa-bahasa yang memiliki stratifikasi tuturan – seperti bahasa sekerabat yaitu bahasa Sunda, Bali, Sasak, dan Madura. Keberadaan sepasang tuturan rendah (ngoko) dan tinggi (krama) tersebut adalah kode bahasa yang dapat digunakan untuk memperlihatkan hubungan sosial di antara para penutur dalam sebuah komunitas sosial. Penggunaan kode rendah dan tinggi secara diadik melahirkan tiga pola penggunaan tingkat tutur sebagai bentuk pola komunikasi pada masyarakat yang memiliki stratifikasi sosial.

Makalah ini membahas bagaimana pola penggunaan tingkat tutur rendah (ngoko) bahasa Jawa secara diadik dan simetris dalam komunikasi sehari-hari pada komunitas tutur bahasa Jawa. Sebagai bagian integral dari tingkat tutur bahasa Jawa, tingkat tutur rendah (ngoko) ini digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari para penutur bahasa Jawa sebagai media dan komunikasi sosial. Dalam komunikasi diadik setara akrab, dua peserta tutur saling menggunakan tingkat tutur rendah (ngoko) bahasa Jawa. Penggunaan tingkat tutur rendah (ngoko) secara diadik ini memperlihatkan penggunaaan tingkat tutur yang terpola sebagai cermin bentuk perilaku komunikasi yang terpola pula. Penggunaan tingkat tutur rendah (ngoko) secara diadik simetris ini berfungsi sebagai pemarkah kesetaraan dan keakraban yang dikembangkan oleh para partisipan yang terlibat dalam sebuah tuturan dalam sebuah peristiwa tutur. Pola penggunaaan tingkat tutur rendah (ngoko) secara diadik simetris menyajikan makna kesetiakawan di antara para partisipan yang terlibat dalam tindak tutur dalam peristiwa tutur pada sebuah komunitas tutur. Keteraturan penggunaan tingkat tutur rendah (ngoko) yang terpola dapat mengindikasikan bahwa tingkat tutur rendah (ngoko) bahasa Jawa mencerminkan kesantunan berbahasa yang dalam penelitian ini disebut kesantunan persekawanan. Keteraturan pola komunikasi menggunakan tuturan rendah (ngoko) ini juga mengindikasikan bukan semata-mata strategi komunikasi tetapi – sebagaimana hipotesis penelitian ini – adalah sebuah kontrak sosial atau kesepakatan sosial dalam makna yang lebih luas atau kontrak komunikasi setara akrab dalam makna yang lebih spesifik antara para partisipan yang terlbiat dalam sebuah tindak tutur dalam peristiwa tutur dalam komunitas tutur.

Kata kunci: kesetaraan, keakraban, kesetiakawanan, kesantunan persekawanan, kontrak komunikasi

Permintaan makalah lengkap (full paper): isi formulir di bawah ini:

Full paper Kontrak Komunikasi, Penggunaan Ngoko Bahasa Jawa

Read Full Post »

The Use of Low Code (Ngoko) in Javanese

Majid Wajdi

Politeknik Negeri Bali

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Kegiatan rikhlah dakwah yang diselenggarakan PD Muhammadiyah Kabupaten Badung

The Use of Low Code (Ngoko) in Javanese

Read Full Post »

LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE AND LOVE ACQUISITION DEVICE 

Majid Wajdi

Whether we realize or not, all human being around the world have already been created by God without limit. God creates human in an unlimited way of creation. Every human being is equipped by their ability to learn a new language. What method and what technique do human being apply in order to ease them in learning their new language? As we know that all children around the world, with their own social and political background, are able to acquire their language when they are under five years old. I want to use term ‘under five years old’, because I find the Indonesian term for ‘under five years old’ is ‘balita’, bawah lima tahun.

When a child (under five) starts learning a language, he/she just maximizes his/her ability to pay attention to his/her surrounding. In this case, a child maximizes his/her ability to learn a new language. They just ‘listen’ and ‘listen’ and then try to imitate every sound they listen to. It means that they try to ‘speak’ and ‘speak’. Listening has become the first activity for a child in acquiring or learning a language. They listen carefully every word around him/her. After listening, they practise speaking. What they do during the first five years is listening and speaking.

Why are children able to learn a new language when they are under five years old? God creates them by giving them a kind of tool called LAD, language acquisition device. LAD is a kind of device or a tool used by every human being to learn or to acquire a language. That is a child is able to acquire a new language, although he/she is not equipped by another tool. A child cannot use a pencil or a pen and a note book to aid him/her in taking a note.

LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE AND LOVE ACQUISITION DEVICE  

Read Full Post »

Beautiful Life with Cancer

Discovering the Gift

Storytime with John

Pull up and listen...I've got a funny one for ya...

Sociolinguistics

Demi Pena dan Apa Yang Dituliskan: Berisi Aktivitas coretan dan Makalah

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

Beautiful Life with Cancer

Discovering the Gift

Storytime with John

Pull up and listen...I've got a funny one for ya...

Sociolinguistics

Demi Pena dan Apa Yang Dituliskan: Berisi Aktivitas coretan dan Makalah

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

Beautiful Life with Cancer

Discovering the Gift

Storytime with John

Pull up and listen...I've got a funny one for ya...

Sociolinguistics

Demi Pena dan Apa Yang Dituliskan: Berisi Aktivitas coretan dan Makalah

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

Beautiful Life with Cancer

Discovering the Gift

Storytime with John

Pull up and listen...I've got a funny one for ya...

Sociolinguistics

Demi Pena dan Apa Yang Dituliskan: Berisi Aktivitas coretan dan Makalah

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.